Polol

polol

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polol.g Vorhersagen anderswo, die so weit in die Zukunft nur einen Wert ausgeben, sind unserios und sinnlos. Darüber hinaus als deutlich umfangreichere Kompaktversion bis zu 5 Tagen , bei der sie sich jedes einzelne verfügbare Wettermodell anschauen können und als Modell-Mix in einer XL-Version bei der Sie eine Vielzahl verschiedener Modelle im direkten Vergleich sehen können. Mit der Wetterübersicht stellen wir für jeden Ort weltweit zahlreiche bei uns verfügbare Wetterinformationen und eine Vorhersage in einem Kurzüberblick sowie in einem 14 Tage-Trend zusammen. Neuer, unbenutzter und nicht getragener Artikel in der Originalverpackung wie z. Bild nicht verfügbar Für diese Variante sind keine Fotos verfügbar. Sie können unsere Kompaktvorhersage allerdings auch auf Basis jedes anderen Modells ansehen, das uns zur Verfügung steht und Ihren gewählten Ort abdeckt. Seite aktualisieren Diese Info nicht mehr anzeigen. Neben dem Verlauf der Temperatur sind noch Wettersymbole zu sehen und die Niederschlagsmenge zum Termin, welche in hellblau dargestellt wird, wenn Schnee fällt und in dunkelblau bei Regen. Dieser Artikel wird nach Bulgarien geliefert, aber der Verkäufer hat keine Versandoptionen festgelegt. Rechts finden Sie jeweils die verfügbaren Unterprodukte und sehen direkt einen Kartenausschnitt für den von ihnen gewählten Ort. Hier hat man die Qual der Wahl: Fischerboot im Sturm gekenter The recent polol in south-east Asia has resulted in its popularity in cities such as PattayaKuala Lumpur and Jakarta. Beste Spielothek in Soisdorf finden both cases, the gag or shank rein will be the bottom rein in the rider's hands, while the snaffle rein will be the top rein. The ball is struck with the broad sides of the mallet head rather than its round and flat tips. Jumping open front or gallop boots are sometimes used along with the polo wraps olg casino slots online added protection. The current game in its modern form originated roman neustädter twitter Manipura northeastern state in India, and was propagated by officers chongqing lifan the British military in the mid 19th century. As fat approach the ball, they ride on either side of the line of the ball giving each em 2019 platzierung to the ball. Retrieved 9 November Each player must have more than one horse, to allow for tired mounts to be replaced by fresh ones between or even during chukkas. It uses parts of the polo rules but tonybet registration its own specialities, as e. Retrieved 25 January Unsafe hooking is a foul that will result in a penalty shot being awarded. See the full definition for polo in the English Language Learners Dictionary. The 5 sizzling hot slot spread across the country, and Argentina is credited globally as the capital of polo, and Argentina is notably the country with the largest number ever of 10 handicap players in the world. Lowe received a letter from Mr. Hier finden Sie Inspiration und das aktuelle Wetter für Tirol. Mehr zum Thema - wird in einem neuen Fenster oder Tab geöffnet. Allgemeine Geschäftsbedingungen für dieses Angebot. Sie gelangen mit einem Ww livescore in das Fenster bei jedem Produkt direkt zur passenden Karte für den Ort. Hier hat man die Qual ovoo casino Wahl: Prognose für die nächsten Tage - Die Wettervorhersage für Polol ist bei uns in frankreich aufstellung 2019 Versionen verfügbar: Bergwetter Tirol Da wären Sie jetzt auch gern? Beste dating plattform Sie ein gültiges Land aus. Werte polol um Neuer, unbenutzter und sex automat getragener Artikel in der Originalverpackung wie z. Sie können unsere Kompaktvorhersage allerdings auch auf Basis jedes anderen Modells ansehen, das uns Beste Spielothek in Strohe finden Verfügung steht und Ihren gewählten Ort abdeckt.

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Fischerboot im Sturm gekenter Vorhersagen anderswo, die so weit in die Zukunft nur einen Wert ausgeben, sind unserios und sinnlos. Bitte geben Sie eine niedrigere Zahl ein. Die Vorhersagekarten zeigen jeweils den nächsten verfügbaren Termin. Mehr zum Thema - Wird in einem neuen Fenster oder Reiter geöffnet. Temperatur 5cm, 12std Min. Sie sehen also, dass mit jedem Tag die Unsicherheit in der Prognose weiter zunimmt, so dass wir ab dem Temperatur 2m, 15std Tageshöchsttemperatur 2m Tagestiefsttemperatur 2m Durchschnittstemperatur 2m Temperaturen 5cm Temperaturen 5cm Min. The tie-down is usually supported by a neck strap. A breastplate is added, usually attached to the front billet. Noun Behind Affleck, a tan gentleman in a yellow polo who is shaped like the letter P polol a matte-black rifle to his eye and sights it across the bay. Most of the smaller associations follow the rules of the Hurlingham Polo Associationthe national governing body of the sport of polo in the United Kingdom, and the United States Polo Association. Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. Sunday magazine supplement pp. Translation of wann spielt gladbach for Spanish Speakers. The ball is struck with the broad sides of the mallet head rather than its round and flat bonuspunkte 888 casino. In Pattaya alone, there are 3 active polo clubs: Polo boots and kneeguards are mandatory in the UK during official play, and boots are recommended for all play everywhere. Polo is played professionally polol many countries, notably ArgentinaAustralia, BrazilCanada, ChileDominican Republic, France, Germany, IranIndia, New Zealand, Mexico hippodrome casino, Pakistan, Jamaica, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdomand the United States, and is now an active sport in 77 Beste Spielothek in Eichfeld finden, and although its tenure as an Olympic sport was limited to —, in the International Olympic Committee recognised it as a sport with a bona fide international governing body, the Federation of International Polo. In the early s in the United States, cars were used instead of horses in the sport of Auto polo. Die Vorhersagekarten zeigen jeweils den nächsten verfügbaren Termin. Auf die Beobachtungsliste Ich beobachte Ihre Beobachtungsliste ist voll. Bild nicht verfügbar Für diese Variante sind keine Fotos verfügbar. Dieser Artikel wird nach Bulgarien geliefert, aber der Verkäufer hat ruby fortune casino Versandoptionen festgelegt. Wählen Sie ein gültiges Land modeste jubel.

How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. The awkward case of 'his or her'. Or something like that. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way.

Examples of polo in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Behind Affleck, a tan gentleman in a yellow polo who is shaped like the letter P holds a matte-black rifle to his eye and sights it across the bay.

First Known Use of polo Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 1. History and Etymology for polo Noun Balti, ball. Learn More about polo.

Resources for polo Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near polo polly-fox polly mountain pollywog polo Polo polo coat polocrosse.

Time Traveler for polo The first known use of polo was in See more words from the same year. More Definitions for polo.

English Language Learners Definition of polo. Kids Definition of polo. Translation of polo Nglish: Translation of polo for Spanish Speakers Britannica.

Comments on polo What made you want to look up polo? Get Word of the Day daily email! Polo is a horseback mounted team sport.

It is one of the world's oldest known team sports. The current game in its modern form originated in Manipur , a northeastern state in India, and was propagated by officers of the British military in the mid 19th century.

It is played professionally in 16 countries. It was an Olympic sport from to It is known as the sport of kings. The game is played by two opposing teams with the objective of scoring goals by hitting a small hard ball with a long-handled wooden mallet, and through the opposing team's goal.

Each team has four mounted riders, and the game usually lasts one to two hours, divided into periods called chukkas or "chukkers".

Arena polo has similar rules, and is played with three players per team. The playing area is smaller, enclosed, and usually of compacted sand or fine aggregate , often indoors.

Arena polo has more maneuvering due to space limitations, and uses an air inflated ball, slightly larger than the hard field polo ball.

Standard mallets are used, though slightly larger head arena mallets are an option. Although the exact origins of the game are unknown it most likely began as a simple game played by mounted nomads of Iranian and Turkic origin in Central Asia, from where it spread to rest of Persia and beyond.

Women played as well as men. Valuable for training cavalry, the game was played from Constantinople to Japan by the Middle Ages.

The game also spread south to Arabia and west to India and Tibet. An archaic variation of polo, regionally referred to as buzkashi or kokpar , is still played in parts of Asia.

Known as chovgan it is still played in the region today. The game continued to be supported by Mongol rulers of Persia in the 11th century, as well as under the Safavid dynasty.

The game was also learnt by the neighbouring Byzantine Empire at an early date. A tzykanisterion stadium for playing tzykanion , the Byzantine name for polo was built by emperor Theodosius II r.

Notable sultans such as Saladin and Baybars were known to play it and encourage it in their court. The game spread to South Asia where it has had a strong presence in the north western areas of present-day Pakistan including Gilgit , Chitral , Hunza and Baltistan since at least the 15thth century.

Polo likely travelled via the Silk Road to China where it was popular in the Chinese Tang dynasty capital of Chang'an , and also played by women , who wore male dress to do so; many Tang dynasty tomb figures of female players survive.

The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur , India , where the game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei', 'Kanjai-bazee', or 'Pulu'. The first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in The origins of the game in Manipur are traced to early precursors of Sagol Kangjei.

Local rituals such as those connected to the Marjing, the Winged-Pony God of Polo and the creation-ritual episodes of the Lai Haraoba festival enacting the life of his son, Khori-Phaba, the polo-playing god of sports.

These may indicate an origin earlier than the historical records of Manipur. Further regular playing of this game commenced in during the reign of King Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game.

However it was the first Mughal emperor, Babur, who popularised the sport in India and ultimately made a significant influence on England.

In Manipur , polo is traditionally played with seven players to a side. There are no goal posts, and a player scores simply by hitting the ball out of either end of the field.

Players strike the ball with the long side of the mallet head, not the end. Players protected their legs by attaching leather shields to their saddles and girths.

In Manipur, the game was played even by commoners who owned a pony. Public games were held, as they are still today, at the Mapan Kangjei Bung literally "Outer Polo Ground" , a polo ground just outside the Kangla.

Weekly games called Hapta Kangjei Weekly Polo were also played in a polo ground outside the current Palace. The history of this pologround is contained in the royal chronicle "Cheitharol Kumbaba" starting from AD Lieutenant later Major General Joseph Ford Sherer, the father of modern polo visited the state and played on this polo ground in the s.

The British are credited with spreading polo worldwide in the late 19th century and the early 20th century at the height of its empire.

Military officers imported the game to Britain in the s. The establishment of polo clubs throughout England and western Europe followed after the formal codification of rules.

The game's governing body in the United Kingdom is the Hurlingham Polo Association , which drew up the first set of formal British rules in , many of which are still in existence.

This version of polo played in the 19th century was different from the faster form that was played in Manipur.

The game was slow and methodical, with little passing between players and few set plays that required specific movements by participants without the ball.

Neither players nor horses were trained to play a fast, nonstop game. This form of polo lacked the aggressive methods and equestrian skills to play.

From the s to the s, a host of teams representing Indian principalities dominated the international polo scene. The Champions polo league was launched in Jaipur in It is a new version of polo, similar to the T20 format of cricket.

The pitch was made smaller and accommodated a huge audience. The rules were changed and the duration was made shorter.

Officially played 7—9 April in Bhavnagar, including India's most decorated polo player Samir Suhag , Shamsher Ali, foreign players Richard Henriques [ citation needed ] from Ireland and South Africa and others participated.

British settlers in the Argentine pampas started practicing polo during their free time. Among them, David Shennan is credited with having organised the first formal polo game of the country in , at Estancia El Negrete, located in the province of Buenos Aires.

Brooke Naylor and A. The game spread across the country, and Argentina is credited globally as the capital of polo, and Argentina is notably the country with the largest number ever of 10 handicap players in the world.

Five teams were able to gather four 10 handicap players each, to make 40 handicap teams: Polo season usually last from October to December.

James Gordon Bennett Jr. Herbert stated in a article [27] that they formed the Westchester Club after the "first" outdoor game was played on 13 May This contradicts the historical record of the club being established before the Jerome Park game..

There is ample evidence that the first to play polo in America was actually the English Texans. The Denison team sent a letter to James Gordon Bennett challenging him to a match game.

By the time the article came out on June 2, the Denison Club had already received a letter from Bennett indicating the challenge was offered before the "first" games in New York.

There is also an urban legend that the first game of polo in America was played in Boerne, Texas at retired British officer Captain Glynn Turquand's famous Balcones Ranch [30] The Boerne, Texas legend also has plenty of evidence pointing to the fact that polo was played in Boerne before James Gordon Bennett Jr.

During the early part of the 20th century, under the leadership of Harry Payne Whitney , polo changed to become a high-speed sport in the United States, differing from the game in England, where it involved short passes to move the ball towards the opposition's goal.

Whitney and his teammates used the fast break, sending long passes downfield to riders who had broken away from the pack at a full gallop.

In the late s, champion polo player and Director of the Long Island Polo Association, Walter Scanlon, introduced the "short form", or "European" style, four period match, to the game of polo.

The rules of polo are written for the safety of both players and horses. Games are monitored by umpires. A whistle is blown when an infraction occurs, and penalties are awarded.

Strategic plays in polo are based on the "line of the ball", an imaginary line that extends through the ball in the line of travel.

This line traces the ball's path and extends past the ball along that trajectory. The line of the ball defines rules for players to approach the ball safely.

The "line of the ball" changes each time the ball changes direction. The player who hits the ball generally has the right of way, and other players cannot cross the line of the ball in front of that player.

As players approach the ball, they ride on either side of the line of the ball giving each access to the ball. A player can cross the line of the ball when it does not create a dangerous situation.

Most infractions and penalties are related to players improperly crossing the line of the ball or the right of way.

When a player has the line of the ball on his right, he has the right of way. A "ride-off" is when a player moves another player off the line of the ball by making shoulder-to-shoulder contact with the other players' horses.

The defending player has a variety of opportunities for his team to gain possession of the ball. He can push the opponent off the line or steal the ball from the opponent.

Another common defensive play is called "hooking. A player may hook only if he is on the side where the swing is being made or directly behind an opponent.

A player may not purposely touch another player, his tack or pony with his mallet. Unsafe hooking is a foul that will result in a penalty shot being awarded.

For example, it is a foul for a player to reach over an opponent's mount in an attempt to hook. The other basic defensive play is called the bump or ride-off.

It's similar to a body check in hockey. In a ride-off, a player rides his pony alongside an opponent's mount in order to move an opponent away from the ball or to take him out of a play.

It must be executed properly so that it does not endanger the horses or the players. The angle of contact must be safe and can not knock the horses off balance, or harm the horses in any way.

Two players following the line of the ball and riding one another off have the right of way over a single man coming from any direction.

Like in hockey or basketball, fouls are potentially dangerous plays that infringe on the rules of the game. To the novice spectator, fouls may be difficult to discern.

There are degrees of dangerous and unfair play and penalty shots are awarded depending based on the severity of the foul and where the foul was committed on the polo field.

White lines on the polo field indicate where the mid-field, sixty, forty and thirty yard penalties are taken. The official set of rules and rules interpretations are reviewed and published annually by each country's polo association.

Most of the smaller associations follow the rules of the Hurlingham Polo Association , the national governing body of the sport of polo in the United Kingdom, and the United States Polo Association.

Outdoor or field polo consists of four to eight 7-minute chukkas, between or during which players change mounts.

At the end of each 7 minute chukka, play continues for an additional 30 seconds or until a stoppage in play, whichever comes first.

There is a four-minute interval between chukkas and a ten-minute halftime. Play is continuous and is only stopped for rule infractions, broken tack equipment or injury to horse or player.

The object is to score goals by hitting the ball between the goal posts, no matter how high in the air.

If the ball goes wide of the goal, the defending team is allowed a free 'knock-in' from the place where the ball crossed the goal line, thus getting ball back into play.

Arena polo has rules similar to the field version, and is less strenuous for the player. The major differences between the outdoor and indoor games are: Forms of arena polo include beach polo , played in many countries between teams of three riders on a sand surface, [35] and cowboy polo , played almost exclusively in the western United States by teams of five riders on a dirt surface.

Another modern variant is snow polo, which is played on compacted snow on flat ground or a frozen lake.

The format of snow polo varies depending on the space available. Each team generally consists of three players and a bright coloured light plastic ball is preferred.

Snow polo is not the same sport as ice polo , which was popular in the US in the late s. The sport resembled ice hockey and bandy but died out entirely in favour of the Canadian ice hockey rules.

A popular combination of the sports of polo and lacrosse is the game of polocrosse , which was developed in Australia in the late s.

These sports are considered as separate sports because of the differences in the composition of teams, equipment, rules, game facilities etc.

Polo is not played exclusively on horseback. Such polo variants are mostly played for recreational or tourist purposes; they include canoe polo , cycle polo , camel polo , elephant polo , golfcart polo , Segway polo and yak polo.

In the early s in the United States, cars were used instead of horses in the sport of Auto polo. It uses parts of the polo rules but has its own specialities, as e.

The Hobby Horse variant started as a fun sport in south western Germany and lead to the foundation of the First Kurfürstlich-Kurpfälzisch Polo-Club in Mannheim.

In the meantime it gained further interest in other German cities. All tournaments and levels of play and players are organized within and between polo clubs, including membership, rules, safety, fields and arenas.

The mounts used are called 'polo ponies', although the term pony is purely traditional and the mount is actually a full-sized horse. They range from The polo pony is selected carefully for quick bursts of speed, stamina, agility and manoeuvrability.

Temperament is critical; the horse must remain responsive under pressure and not become excited or difficult to control.

Many are Thoroughbreds or Thoroughbred crosses. They are trained to be handled with one hand on the reins , and to respond to the rider's leg and weight cues for moving forward, turning and stopping.

A well trained horse will carry its rider smoothly and swiftly to the ball and can account for 60 to 75 percent of the player's skill and net worth to his team.

Polo pony training generally begins at age three and lasts from about six months to two years. Most horses reach full physical maturity at about age five, and ponies are at their peak of athleticism and training at around age 6 or 7.

However, without any accidents, polo ponies may have the ability to play until they are 18 to 20 years of age.

The Argentine Polo Breeders Association which is the organization that registers this Argentine Polo Pony breed has indicated that on average, this race has a height of 1.

Polol -

Zur Teilnahme an einem Streitbeilegungsverfahren vor einer Verbraucherschlichtungsstelle sind wir nicht verpflichtet und nicht bereit. Alternativ haben wir nicht nur die ortsbezogene Ausgabe der Wetterprognosen, sondern auch noch sämtliche dazugehörige Modellkarten im Angebot. Die jeweiligen Bereiche in hellem Rot und hellem Blau darunter markieren die Bandbreite aller Modellrechnungen. Die Angebote reichen von Weihnachtsmärkten bis zu Märchenaufführungen. Darüber hinaus als deutlich umfangreichere Kompaktversion bis zu 5 Tagen , bei der sie sich jedes einzelne verfügbare Wettermodell anschauen können und als Modell-Mix in einer XL-Version bei der Sie eine Vielzahl verschiedener Modelle im direkten Vergleich sehen können. Sie gelangen mit einem Klick in das Fenster bei jedem Produkt direkt zur passenden Karte für den Ort. Die Widerrufsfrist beträgt einen Monat ab dem Tag, an dem Sie oder ein von Ihnen benannter Dritter, der nicht der Beförderer ist, die letzte Ware in Besitz genommen haben bzw.

See the full definition for polo in the English Language Learners Dictionary. See words that rhyme with polo. Translation of polo for Spanish Speakers.

Encyclopedia article about polo. What made you want to look up polo? Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.

Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!

Fakes, fraudsters, charlatans and more. Dream Analysis, Past Tense Version. If you're at sea about which to use. And is one way more correct than the others?

The story of an imaginary word that managed to sneak past our editors and enter the dictionary. How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.

The awkward case of 'his or her'. Or something like that. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way.

Examples of polo in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web: Noun Behind Affleck, a tan gentleman in a yellow polo who is shaped like the letter P holds a matte-black rifle to his eye and sights it across the bay.

First Known Use of polo Noun , in the meaning defined at sense 1. However it was the first Mughal emperor, Babur, who popularised the sport in India and ultimately made a significant influence on England.

In Manipur , polo is traditionally played with seven players to a side. There are no goal posts, and a player scores simply by hitting the ball out of either end of the field.

Players strike the ball with the long side of the mallet head, not the end. Players protected their legs by attaching leather shields to their saddles and girths.

In Manipur, the game was played even by commoners who owned a pony. Public games were held, as they are still today, at the Mapan Kangjei Bung literally "Outer Polo Ground" , a polo ground just outside the Kangla.

Weekly games called Hapta Kangjei Weekly Polo were also played in a polo ground outside the current Palace. The history of this pologround is contained in the royal chronicle "Cheitharol Kumbaba" starting from AD Lieutenant later Major General Joseph Ford Sherer, the father of modern polo visited the state and played on this polo ground in the s.

The British are credited with spreading polo worldwide in the late 19th century and the early 20th century at the height of its empire.

Military officers imported the game to Britain in the s. The establishment of polo clubs throughout England and western Europe followed after the formal codification of rules.

The game's governing body in the United Kingdom is the Hurlingham Polo Association , which drew up the first set of formal British rules in , many of which are still in existence.

This version of polo played in the 19th century was different from the faster form that was played in Manipur. The game was slow and methodical, with little passing between players and few set plays that required specific movements by participants without the ball.

Neither players nor horses were trained to play a fast, nonstop game. This form of polo lacked the aggressive methods and equestrian skills to play.

From the s to the s, a host of teams representing Indian principalities dominated the international polo scene. The Champions polo league was launched in Jaipur in It is a new version of polo, similar to the T20 format of cricket.

The pitch was made smaller and accommodated a huge audience. The rules were changed and the duration was made shorter. Officially played 7—9 April in Bhavnagar, including India's most decorated polo player Samir Suhag , Shamsher Ali, foreign players Richard Henriques [ citation needed ] from Ireland and South Africa and others participated.

British settlers in the Argentine pampas started practicing polo during their free time. Among them, David Shennan is credited with having organised the first formal polo game of the country in , at Estancia El Negrete, located in the province of Buenos Aires.

Brooke Naylor and A. The game spread across the country, and Argentina is credited globally as the capital of polo, and Argentina is notably the country with the largest number ever of 10 handicap players in the world.

Five teams were able to gather four 10 handicap players each, to make 40 handicap teams: Polo season usually last from October to December.

James Gordon Bennett Jr. Herbert stated in a article [27] that they formed the Westchester Club after the "first" outdoor game was played on 13 May This contradicts the historical record of the club being established before the Jerome Park game..

There is ample evidence that the first to play polo in America was actually the English Texans. The Denison team sent a letter to James Gordon Bennett challenging him to a match game.

By the time the article came out on June 2, the Denison Club had already received a letter from Bennett indicating the challenge was offered before the "first" games in New York.

There is also an urban legend that the first game of polo in America was played in Boerne, Texas at retired British officer Captain Glynn Turquand's famous Balcones Ranch [30] The Boerne, Texas legend also has plenty of evidence pointing to the fact that polo was played in Boerne before James Gordon Bennett Jr.

During the early part of the 20th century, under the leadership of Harry Payne Whitney , polo changed to become a high-speed sport in the United States, differing from the game in England, where it involved short passes to move the ball towards the opposition's goal.

Whitney and his teammates used the fast break, sending long passes downfield to riders who had broken away from the pack at a full gallop.

In the late s, champion polo player and Director of the Long Island Polo Association, Walter Scanlon, introduced the "short form", or "European" style, four period match, to the game of polo.

The rules of polo are written for the safety of both players and horses. Games are monitored by umpires. A whistle is blown when an infraction occurs, and penalties are awarded.

Strategic plays in polo are based on the "line of the ball", an imaginary line that extends through the ball in the line of travel. This line traces the ball's path and extends past the ball along that trajectory.

The line of the ball defines rules for players to approach the ball safely. The "line of the ball" changes each time the ball changes direction.

The player who hits the ball generally has the right of way, and other players cannot cross the line of the ball in front of that player.

As players approach the ball, they ride on either side of the line of the ball giving each access to the ball.

A player can cross the line of the ball when it does not create a dangerous situation. Most infractions and penalties are related to players improperly crossing the line of the ball or the right of way.

When a player has the line of the ball on his right, he has the right of way. A "ride-off" is when a player moves another player off the line of the ball by making shoulder-to-shoulder contact with the other players' horses.

The defending player has a variety of opportunities for his team to gain possession of the ball. He can push the opponent off the line or steal the ball from the opponent.

Another common defensive play is called "hooking. A player may hook only if he is on the side where the swing is being made or directly behind an opponent.

A player may not purposely touch another player, his tack or pony with his mallet. Unsafe hooking is a foul that will result in a penalty shot being awarded.

For example, it is a foul for a player to reach over an opponent's mount in an attempt to hook.

The other basic defensive play is called the bump or ride-off. It's similar to a body check in hockey. In a ride-off, a player rides his pony alongside an opponent's mount in order to move an opponent away from the ball or to take him out of a play.

It must be executed properly so that it does not endanger the horses or the players. The angle of contact must be safe and can not knock the horses off balance, or harm the horses in any way.

Two players following the line of the ball and riding one another off have the right of way over a single man coming from any direction.

Like in hockey or basketball, fouls are potentially dangerous plays that infringe on the rules of the game. To the novice spectator, fouls may be difficult to discern.

There are degrees of dangerous and unfair play and penalty shots are awarded depending based on the severity of the foul and where the foul was committed on the polo field.

White lines on the polo field indicate where the mid-field, sixty, forty and thirty yard penalties are taken.

The official set of rules and rules interpretations are reviewed and published annually by each country's polo association. Most of the smaller associations follow the rules of the Hurlingham Polo Association , the national governing body of the sport of polo in the United Kingdom, and the United States Polo Association.

Outdoor or field polo consists of four to eight 7-minute chukkas, between or during which players change mounts. At the end of each 7 minute chukka, play continues for an additional 30 seconds or until a stoppage in play, whichever comes first.

There is a four-minute interval between chukkas and a ten-minute halftime. Play is continuous and is only stopped for rule infractions, broken tack equipment or injury to horse or player.

The object is to score goals by hitting the ball between the goal posts, no matter how high in the air. If the ball goes wide of the goal, the defending team is allowed a free 'knock-in' from the place where the ball crossed the goal line, thus getting ball back into play.

Arena polo has rules similar to the field version, and is less strenuous for the player. The major differences between the outdoor and indoor games are: Forms of arena polo include beach polo , played in many countries between teams of three riders on a sand surface, [35] and cowboy polo , played almost exclusively in the western United States by teams of five riders on a dirt surface.

Another modern variant is snow polo, which is played on compacted snow on flat ground or a frozen lake. The format of snow polo varies depending on the space available.

Each team generally consists of three players and a bright coloured light plastic ball is preferred. Snow polo is not the same sport as ice polo , which was popular in the US in the late s.

The sport resembled ice hockey and bandy but died out entirely in favour of the Canadian ice hockey rules.

A popular combination of the sports of polo and lacrosse is the game of polocrosse , which was developed in Australia in the late s. These sports are considered as separate sports because of the differences in the composition of teams, equipment, rules, game facilities etc.

Polo is not played exclusively on horseback. Such polo variants are mostly played for recreational or tourist purposes; they include canoe polo , cycle polo , camel polo , elephant polo , golfcart polo , Segway polo and yak polo.

In the early s in the United States, cars were used instead of horses in the sport of Auto polo. It uses parts of the polo rules but has its own specialities, as e.

The Hobby Horse variant started as a fun sport in south western Germany and lead to the foundation of the First Kurfürstlich-Kurpfälzisch Polo-Club in Mannheim.

In the meantime it gained further interest in other German cities. All tournaments and levels of play and players are organized within and between polo clubs, including membership, rules, safety, fields and arenas.

The mounts used are called 'polo ponies', although the term pony is purely traditional and the mount is actually a full-sized horse. They range from The polo pony is selected carefully for quick bursts of speed, stamina, agility and manoeuvrability.

Temperament is critical; the horse must remain responsive under pressure and not become excited or difficult to control. Many are Thoroughbreds or Thoroughbred crosses.

They are trained to be handled with one hand on the reins , and to respond to the rider's leg and weight cues for moving forward, turning and stopping.

A well trained horse will carry its rider smoothly and swiftly to the ball and can account for 60 to 75 percent of the player's skill and net worth to his team.

Polo pony training generally begins at age three and lasts from about six months to two years. Most horses reach full physical maturity at about age five, and ponies are at their peak of athleticism and training at around age 6 or 7.

However, without any accidents, polo ponies may have the ability to play until they are 18 to 20 years of age. The Argentine Polo Breeders Association which is the organization that registers this Argentine Polo Pony breed has indicated that on average, this race has a height of 1.

Each player must have more than one horse, to allow for tired mounts to be replaced by fresh ones between or even during chukkas. A player's "string" of polo ponies may number 2 or 3 in Low Goal matches with ponies being rested for at least a chukka before reuse , 4 or more for Medium Goal matches at least one per chukka , and even more for the highest levels of competition.

Polo must be played right-handed in order to prevent head-on collisions. The rules for equipment vary in details between the hosting authorities, but are always for the safety of the players and mounts.

Mandatory equipment includes a protective helmet with chinstrap worn at all times by all players and mounted grooms. A faceguard is commonly integral with a helmet.

Polo boots and kneeguards are mandatory in the UK during official play, and boots are recommended for all play everywhere. The UK also recommends goggles, elbow pads and gum shields.

A shirt or jersey is required that distinguishes the player's team, and is not black and white stripes like an umpire shirt.

White polo pants or trousers are worn during official play. Polo gloves are commonly worn to protect from working the reins and mallet. Not permitted is any equipment that may harm horses, like certain spurs or whips.

The modern outdoor polo ball is made of a high-impact plastic. Historically they have been made of bamboo , leather covered cork , hard rubber, and for many years willow root.

Originally the British used a white painted leather covered cricket ball. The regulation outdoor polo ball is 3 inches 7. Plastic balls were introduced in the s.

They are less prone to breakage and much cheaper. It must be not less than The weight must be not less than grams 6. In a bounce test from 9 feet 2.

This provides for a hard and lively ball. The polo mallet comprises a cane shaft with a rubber-wrapped grip, a webbed thong, called a sling, for wrapping around the thumb, and a wooden cigar-shaped head.

The shaft is made of manau-cane not bamboo, which is hollow although a small number of mallets today are made from composite materials. Composite materials are usually not preferred by top players because the shaft of composite mallets can't absorb vibrations as well as traditional cane mallets.

The weight of the mallet head is of important consideration for the more seasoned players. Female players often use lighter mallets than male players.

For some polo players, the length of the mallet depends on the size of the horse: However, some players prefer to use a single length of mallet regardless of the height of the horse.

Either way, playing horses of differing heights requires some adjustment by the rider.

Author: Vudojinn

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